Keeping the Dream of Fatherhood Alive

Keeping the Dream of Fatherhood Alive

 April 27, 2022   Return


Men’s Health and Fertility with

Dr Agilan Arjunan

Consultant Gynaecologist & Fertility Specialist


KL Fertility CentreGoing through Father’s Day can be hard for men who experience difficulties conceiving a child with their loved one. If you are one of those men, don’t lose hope. Advances in fertility research and treatment have kept the door open even for men with low sperm count to become a father. This month, Dr Agilan Arjunan shares some insights on the options available to transform a man’s dream of fatherhood into reality.

Looking at the two men below, which one do you think has a sperm count issue? There is no way of telling, actually. A man can have every stereotypical element associated with masculinity — big strapping muscles, lots of body and facial hair, height, etc — but he can still have low sperm concentration.

Let’s have Dr Agilan explain the sperm production process to get a better idea of the big picture.


  1. The pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The hormones then travel to the testicles.
  2. FSH stimulates the Sertoli cells in the testicles to produce sperm cells. LH stimulates the Leydig cells in the testicles to produce the male sex hormone testosterone.
  3. As more sperm and testosterone are produced in the testicles, the Sertoli cells begin to produce another hormone called inhibin
  4. High levels of inhibin and testosterone cause the pituitary gland to reduce its production of FSH and LH. Subsequently, sperm cell production decreases.

Once sperm cells are produced, they will take around 72 days to reach maturation. Therefore, any changes made to improve sperm count and quality usually need about 3 months before any noticeable improvements are seen.


“The World Health Organization defines low sperm count as sperm concentration of below 15 million per millilitre of semen,” says Dr Agilan. Given the drop of fertility rate among men worldwide, he adds that this figure is expected to be redefined into a higher figure in the future.

How can a man have low sperm count? Basically, there are two possible reasons.

One, something affected the sperm production process. Dr Agilan reveals that about 15%of men with zero sperm count (azoospermia) are born with defects in their Y-chromosome. Hormonal imbalances can also affect sperm production — one common example is the use of anabolic steroids by men who want to improve their physique.

The other possible cause is that something is blocking sperm cells from being present in the man’s semen. Typically, this is due to past infections, previous surgery that led to obstructive scar tissues or trauma to the genitals.

However, there is hope! We only need one sperm cell to successfully fertilize a woman’s egg cell and create a child, and that’s the key. Now, we have the technology and expertise to retrieve sperm cells from the man’s genitalia, even if his sperm count is low.


There are many different types of steroids. When people talk about the steroids used to build up muscles, they are referring to anabolic steroids. These steroids bind to muscle cells to promote growth.

Now, anabolic steroids are synthetic compounds that are based on testosterone. Therefore, when one uses anabolic steroids, Dr Agilan says that the body senses that there are already high levels of testosterone present, and as you can see in the previous page, high levels of testosterone will lead to reduced sperm cell production. Prolonged use of anabolic steroids can even lead to a complete shutdown of sperm production!

Thus, there is no other way about it. Don’t take steroids if you are concerned about your fertility!

But what if I’m already on anabolic steroids? Dr Agilan recommends visiting a fertility specialist for a proper assessment. Men whose sperm count is affected will have to halt taking the anabolic steroids for the time being; they will be given hormone therapy (usually human chorionic gonadotropin, along with FSH if necessary) in the meantime to stimulate sperm production.

Depending on how long they had been on anabolic steroids and the dosage they were taking, recovery may take place over a period of a few months or even a year or two.


Dr Agilan shares that the fertility specialist will first run some tests to first determine the nature of the problem.

  • Sperm sample. Sperm samples will be needed to determine key details such as how much sperm is made, the shape of the sperm cells and how these cells move. The semen will also be analyzed to measure its volume, acidity and uniformity.
  • Blood tests. This will help determine whether there is any hormonal issue that affects sperm production. It also gives information about how ‘hard’ the brain is working to stimulate testicles to produce sperm.
  • Physical examination. This gives information about the size and consistency of testicles as well as the presence of vas deferens (the tube connecting the testicles to the penis).
  • Ultrasound examination may be useful to determine whether there is any issue with the man’s genitalia that can affect his fertility.
  • Biopsy. If necessary, a small piece of tissue may be obtained from the testicles to be further examined in a laboratory.


Based on the test results, the fertility specialist will prescribe the appropriate hormone treatment to improve the man’s sperm count. The man will provide his sperm sample at predetermined intervals (usually once every 4 to 8 weeks) for assessment.


The fertility specialist may recommend simple fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) to help the couple have a child.

IUI involves extracting the man’s sperms and placing them directly into the woman’s uterus. This is done in order to place the sperms nearer to the fallopian tube and hence increase the chance of fertilization of the egg cell by a sperm cell.

In most cases, though, the sperms would be frozen and used later for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Dr Agilan strongly recommends that the man should take measures to improve his sperm quality prior to this, via healthy diet, regular physical activity, good stress management and healthy weight management. Cigarettes and alcohol should be avoided.


Dr Agilan says that there are still options that can be explored.

ICSI-IVF. In normal IVF, a viable healthy egg obtained from the woman will be placed in a dish in the IVF laboratory and mixed with many sperms obtained from the man.

In ICSI-IVF (ICSI is short for intracytoplasmic sperm injection), the embryologist will directly inject a single sperm  cell into an egg cell using a thin hollow needle-like structure called a pipette. This procedure will be repeated for every egg harvested from the woman. This process improves the chances of a successful fertilization compared to IVF without ICSI, although

Dr Agilan notes that it does not guarantee a 100% chance of success. If the man is still unable to produce adequate sperm cells after hormone treatment, or if nearly all the sperm cells seen in provided samples are dead, then there is the option of PESA or TeSA.

Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) is carried out if there is a blockage in the vas deferens preventing sperm cells from being present in the semen, or if the vas deferens is absent from birth.

Sperm produced in the testicles is stored in a tube-like structure called the epididymis. In PESA, a very fine needle will be

inserted into that structure to collect some epididymal fluid. The fluid will then be examined carefully under the microscope to locate healthy- looking sperm that can be used for ICSI-IVF or frozen for later use.

This process is performed under local anaesthesia, so there should be no pain, and there is no incision and hence no scar formation. The entire procedure doesn’t take too long, and the man can go back to his usual routine on the same day or the day after.

Testicular sperm aspiration (TeSA) is an option when there is no sperm cells observed in the man’s sperm sample. The procedure is nearly similar to PESA, only this time the fine needle is inserted directly into the testicular tissue instead of epididymis.


Dr Agilan assures that there are many options these days that can help men with low sperm count. Many things that seemed impossible once upon a time are indeed possible today. Therefore, if you have always dreamed of being a father, but have troubles conceiving a child with your loved one, don’t feel embarrassed or emasculated. Talk to a fertility specialist (discretion is guaranteed) — it may just be the best gift you can give yourself, possibly opening the doors for future Father’s Day celebrations to cherish with a family you have always yearned for. HT

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What Men Should Know Before They Go For The Snip-Snip

What Men Should Know Before They Go For The Snip-Snip

 April 27, 2022   Return


Professor Dr Christopher Ho Chee Kong

Consultant Urologist

Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre



To understand the procedure better, first let Prof Dr Chris Ho give an overview on the sperm production process. Sperm cells are made by cells called Sertoli cells in the testicles and are stored in the structure called epididymis. A tube called the vas deferens carries these sperm cells from the epididymis towards the urethra, and along the way, they are mixed with seminal fluids, produced by separate glands called seminal glands, to form ejaculate during sexual intercourse.

What happens during vasectomy is that the vas deferens is cut. As a result, sperm cells are unable to leave the testicles and pregnancy is no longer possible after sexual intercourse.

Because vasectomy does not affect the seminal glands, the man can still produce semen.


Vasectomy does not affect the nerves in the penis or the blood supply to it, so Prof Dr Chris Ho states that there shouldn’t be any changes in the man’s ability to achieve an erection or attain sexual pleasure. There shouldn’t be any changes to the man’s semen either, aside from the absence of sperm cells.

Improperly done vasectomy, however, may damage blood supply to the testicles, which in turn can lead to reduced testosterone production. As a result, the man’s sexual performance may be affected, but such occurrence is very rare.


“There is a failure rate of 0.3% to 9%, usually due to the surgeon’s technique or skill level,” says Prof Dr Chris Ho.

Also, sometimes the cut vas deferens may rejoin on their own, but this rarely happens.


It’s possible. Prof Dr Chris Ho will explain more about this later. Still, he cautions that reversing a vasectomy is more complicated, and hence is an expensive procedure with a chance of failure, when compared to vasectomy.

Therefore, a man should be absolutely certain that he doesn’t want children before going for the snip!


There are two methods, according to Prof Dr Chris Ho.

Conventional vasectomy will see the surgeon using a scalpel to make an incision on the skin of the scrotum to perform the snip.

No-scalpel vasectomy, on the other hand, sees the surgeon using a specialized surgical instrument, called the sharp haemostat, to puncture a small hole in the scrotum. Unlike the previous method, this method has a smaller risk of bleeding, infection and pain. The procedure also takes less time to perform compared to conventional vasectomy.

However, Prof Dr Chris Ho points out that the equipment needed for no-scalpel vasectomy may not be available at certain clinics and hospitals. Also, not every surgeon is capable of performing this type of vasectomy, as it requires a little bit more training and experience.


Prof Dr Chris Ho shares that one will need to rest for about 24 hours after the surgery, and he can perform light activities after 2 or 3 days. Sports, lifting and other heavy activities should be avoided for the first week or so, however. “Sexual intercourse can resume after about 1 week,” he says, adding that the man should use contraceptives such as condoms until follow-up medical appointments show that there are indeed no sperm cells in his semen.


Oh yes. To determine whether a vasectomy is successful, the man will be asked to provide a semen sample for analysis at about 3 months or after 20 ejaculations (whichever is sooner) after the surgery.

While not common, post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS) is a group of bothersome and even painful symptoms that can develop either immediately or later (sometimes even a few years) after a vasectomy. Symptoms can include ache in the testicles, discomfort during sex or after heavy activities and pain during ejaculation. There are ways to relieve these symptoms, but in some men, the symptoms may persist and become chronic—their best solution may be to reverse their vasectomy.



Prof Dr Chris Ho reveals that a vasectomy can be reversed, either by:

  • Reconnecting both ends of the cut vas deferens (vaso- vasotomy), or
  • Reconnecting the cut vas deferens to the epididymis (vaso-epididymostomy).

The choice of procedure is determined after an initial assessment of a fluid sample, called vas fluid, obtained from the vas deferens.

  • If healthy sperm cells are seen in the sample, then vaso- vasotomy will be carried out.
  • If no sperm cells are seen, or if the vas fluids aren’t of sufficient quality to be analyzed, then vaso- epididymostomy will be recommended instead.


Vasectomy reversal is a far more complex procedure than vasectomy. It is best carried out by a well-trained surgeon, and even then, there are no guarantees of success.

Furthermore, Prof Dr Chris Ho explains that the vasectomy process itself may affect the man’s fertility even after a reversal has been carried out.

Epididymal blowout. After a vasectomy, the sperm cells in the epididymis has nowhere to go. As a result, there is mounting pressure in the epididymis, to the point that rupture of the epididymal structure may result.This affects sperm production and the quality of the sperm produced.

Anti-sperm antibodies. The body may produce antibodies that can either outright kill sperm cells or severely reduce the ability of the sperm cells to travel in the womb and seek out an egg cell to fertilize.

“The rate of a successful pregnancy after a reversal vasectomy is about 55% if the reversal is done less than 10 years after the initial vasectomy,” says Prof Dr Chris Ho. “This rate drops to 25% if the reversal is performed more than 20 years after the vasectomy.”

Even if the vasectomy reversal is successful, it may take up to a year before viable amounts of sperm cells are produced in some men.


Prof Dr Chris Ho advises men who wish to have their vasectomies reversed to talk to a urologist. With advances in research and medical methodologies, there are many men who successfully become fathers despite having had vasectomies in their past. These days, there is always a possibility that the door to fatherhood is still open, so it is up to the man to make the first step and explore the options available to him. HT

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STOP! For goodness sake

STOP! For goodness sake

 April 25, 2022   Return


If you’re wondering what it is I’m asking you to stop, well, it’s smoking. I recently had a friend pass away from lung cancer. He had stopped smoking for 8 years by then and picked up healthy exercise habits. It wasn’t enough and after 3 years of battling the disease, he succumbed on 2nd August this year. Smoking is very much a man’s disease as many more men smoke compared to women. The World Health Organization (WHO) puts the number of smokers at 1 billion—800 million are men and 200 million are women. As November is Men’s Health Awareness month, let’s see what we can do to help smokers quit. HealthToday speaks to reader Keo Chia who managed to kick the addiction some years back. Smoking cessation comes with many benefits, among which are improvements in lung function, reduction of cardiovascular disease risk and reduction of cancer risk.1


Keo during his interview.

It’s not you, it’s me

We asked Keo what his main driver was behind the decision to quit. Was it his children? Was it his wife? Or was it his health? He says, “I tried quitting cigarettes a few times before finally succeeding. Before that, I couldn’t last more than 1 or 2 days before the overwhelming urge to smoke took over.”

Things stayed the same with Keo trying to quit smoking once every few months due to nagging from his family or urging from friends. This constant trial-and-failure cycle is a typical trait of those looking to quit smoking. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a smoker tries to quit between eight and 10 times before succeeding. However, a 2016 Canadian study says it could take a smoker almost 30 trial-and-failure cycles before finally winning the fight against smoking.2

Things remained pretty much the same until one day, Keo got fed up of failing and told himself, “I WILL quit this time.” Instead of going cold turkey or cutting down on cigarettes like he did previously, Keo decided to use a nicotine patch. He approached a pharmacist near his home and received some counselling on how to use them.

The first time he put the patch on, Keo discovered he was feeling nauseous and dizzy. “I thought I was sick,” he says. However, the patch worked, and he didn’t feel the urge to smoke at all. The symptoms went away gradually over the next few days and he used the patch for 2 weeks.

After 2 weeks, Keo cut the patch into two, effectively halving his dose. This is not recommended, as suddenly halving the nicotine dose could trigger an urge to smoke. Ideally, he should have purchased the patch with a slightly lower dose to reduce the risk of smoking relapse. Luckily, Keo did not face this problem. Again, he wore the patch, this time closer to 3 weeks. When he felt he was ready, he again reduced the dose by half. At the end of 2 months, he could go without cigarettes and even without the patch!

It was the happiest he had been for a long time. There was a sense of achievement and overwhelming pride that he no longer needed to subject his new family (he had just settled down and had a baby by then) to secondhand smoke exposure. He says, “Remember, the decision to quit must come from yourself. Until you make that decision, the urging and nagging by others won’t work.”

It is an addiction

More evidence is emerging that a lot of our vices is the result of an imbalance in our brain’s chemicals. Cigarettes contain nicotine and many other chemical compounds. While we tend to think nicotine is the only addictive substance found in cigarettes, a 2007 study discovered that many additives in cigarettes enhance the addictive nature of nicotine and some mask the side effects, thus making it more pleasurable to the smoker.In the study, the scientists arrived at the conclusion that “documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odour of environmental tobacco smoke from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviours.” 

It is, therefore, no wonder that smoking is so hard to quit once a person begins. Of course, one could say that smokers shouldn’t have started smoking in the first place, but we all make mistakes. The most important thing to do now is to focus on what can be done to help a smoker should they decide to stop.

While the nicotine patch is a commonly used smoking cessation tool, there are other options out there. Another example is the nicotine chewing gum. For some smokers, the action of putting cigarette into the mouth is a harder habit to break than the actual act of smoking. The act of chewing gum can help to attenuate this condition and also prevent the weight gain associated with this behaviour.

If both the patch and gum are not helping, there’s also the option of taking a pill known as varenicline. This is a prescription medicine and may affect the mood of the person. This is because it affects the reward pathways of the brain, preventing one from getting any pleasure from smoking. One should seek a doctor’s advice before embarking on this option.

Smoking and cancer are definitely linked

When a cigarette burns, it releases 5,000 to 7,000 chemicals, of which about 60 are known cancer-causing agents. Apart from nicotine, these include tar, ammonia, acetone, methanol, butane, and hexamine.3,4

We often think about lung cancer when talking about smoking. However, there are many other cancers which are linked to cigarette smoke. These include cancers of the mouth and throat; oesophagus, colon and rectum; bladder, kidney, stomach, and cervix. If we think about it, the chemicals from cigarette smoke stay in our mouth and as we swallow, they pass through the throat, into the stomach and come into contact with every part of our digestive system. Those of us who don’t smoke can always tell if the person using the toilet before us is a smoker based on the smell left behind after they urinate.5


Just like any other addiction, a person who has quit smoking can relapse and pick up cigarettes again. Some people ‘slip’ during their journey to smoking cessation. This means the person sneaks a cigarette or a puff. This isn’t considered a relapse. Relapse refers to a return to regular smoking.7

It is important not to be judgmental about smokers who relapse. If you’re a smoker, remind yourself that this is a temporary setback and don’t look at yourself in a negative light. Remember that it is a battle with addiction and many battles will have to be fought before the war can be won. Even before a person starts his or her smoking cessation journey, it is helpful to know what happens should a ‘slip’ or relapse occur.

Did you know?

The nicotine patch does come with its own set of problems. Some side effects users often face include skin irritation, nausea, headache, vomiting, and diarrhoea. These symptoms are usually manageable and can be acceptable if the user is mentally prepared and properly counselled.

Did you know?

Lung cancer is the most common cancer occurring in men and the third most common in women. Approximately 2 million people were diagnosed with the disease in 2018.

Did you know?

Your risk of developing lung cancer takes many years to return to normal after stopping smoking? In total, it takes about 15 years before the risk of developing lung cancer drops to that of a person who has never smoked.HT


2. Chaiton, M., et al. (2016). Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers. BMJ Open;6:e011045.

3. Cancer Research UK. What’s in a cigarette? Retrieved from

4. Irish Cancer Society. What’s in a cigarette? Retrieved from

5. Siegel, R.L., et al. (2015). Deaths Due to Cigarette Smoking for 12 Smoking-Related Cancers in the United States. JAMA Intern Med;175(9):1574–1576.

6. Rabinoff, M., et al. (2007). Pharmacological and chemical effects of cigarette additives. Am J Public Health;97(11):1981–1991.

7. Slips & Relapses. Retrieved from

8. World Cancer Research Fund. Lung cancer statistics. Retrieved from

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A Cancer Among Men

A Cancer Among Men

 April 25, 2022   Return



Dr Hemanth Kumar Ramasamy

Consultant Urologist & Laparoscopic Surgeon

Following this month’s theme and focus on men’s health, Dr Hemanth delves deep into the topic of prostate cancer, one of the most common types of cancer in men.

The prostate, an organ found exclusively in men, is roughly the size of a walnut. It is a gland that produces seminal fluid, which protects, nourishes and helps transport sperm. “The prostate makes 30% of semen. These fluids are essential for the sperm to survive when it is being sent to the female vagina. It’s got lots a minerals and nutrients for the health and wellbeing of the sperm,” Dr Hemanth explains.


Although the prostate plays a vital role in male reproductive process, prostate cancer rates have been on the rise, and this is certainly an issue men should take note of. Dr Hemanth tells us more in detail.

How common is prostate cancer among men in Malaysia?

From a global perspective, prostate cancer rates are the lowest in South East Asia compared to the rest of the world. Prostate cancer is quite common in the UK, and very common in the US. It is also seen more frequently among the African and American black population.

“Prostate cancer has risen to become the 3rd most common cancer among men.”

In Malaysia, data from the 2007-2011 Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report showed that only six in 100,000 people developed prostate cancer, making it the 5th most common cancer among men at the time. It’s worth noting that in the past, there were fewer urologists, screening tools and overall less awareness on the disease. A recent study conducted by the  Malaysian  Prostate  Cancer Study Group (M-CaP) in 2018, found that prostate cancer has risen to become the 3rd most common cancer among men, occurring in every 12 per 100,000. The breakdown of demographics showed that prostate cancer is most common among the Chinese population, followed by Malays.

Urologists deduce that some of the reasons for the rising numbers could be attributed to: men in Malaysia living longer lives, our shifting diets towards a more western palette (the exact reason for this is still unknown, however studies have shown that a western or meaty diet increases the risk of developing prostate cancer). For example, Japan is a country where prostate cancer incidences are very low. But when we look at the Japanese that have migrated to the US (especially those who are 2nd generation migrants), we notice  that their incidences are higher than the Japanese men living in Japan. Therefore, prostate cancer risk could have lots to do with environmental factors.

What are the risk factors of prostate cancer?

The most common risk factor is age. 80% of prostate cancers are picked up after the age of 60, and prostate cancer in men below the age of 45 is rare.

Genetics could be a factor. Prostate cancer is more common in African Americans and Caucasians, and less common in the Asian population.

Family history is very important. If a man has a 1st degree relative who has prostate cancer (like dad or brother), his risk of developing prostate cancer may be higher, and familial prostate cancer tend to appear earlier.

What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?

This depends on which stage of prostate cancer a man is in. In the  early stages, there could be no signs and symptoms. Some cases of prostate cancers are accidentally picked up during routine screening tests.

Some men may get symptoms of the lower urinary tract such as: difficulty in passing urine, having a burning sensation during urination, going to the toilet more often, dribbling after urination and so on. These could be the early indications of prostate cancer, but most of the time, these symptoms are associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)—an enlarged prostate, which is much more common in Malaysia.

For those with late stage prostate cancer where metastasis has occurred, they may get symptoms mainly associated with the bones, as the bones are commonly where the prostate cancer first spreads to. Prostate cancer lesions in the bone are very typical—they’re called sclerotic lesions and can be picked up relatively easily.

How often should men get their prostate checked? What are the tests available?

With the rising awareness of prostate cancer, screening is becoming more common. Usually, screening can be done in men who are above 50. Patients who have relatives with prostate cancer can opt to do screenings from as young as 45.

Screening is done via a prostate- specific antigen (PSA) test and rectal examination. When a screening programme is carried out, a couple of other tests are usually included, namely: the urine test, ultrasound and uroflow (to test urine flow for possible obstructions). Urologists also would take a detailed clinical history and may ask the patient to complete the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire.

What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?

A patient’s treatment plan would depend on several different factors including the patient’s age, the aggressiveness of his cancer and whether the cancer has spread. A trans-rectal ultrasound biopsy is usually done if the possibility of prostate cancer is picked up by a PSA test or rectal examination. It involves using a specialized probe which is put through the rectum, and biopsy samples may be taken through a needle. Small cuts of samples are taken from 12 different areas of the prostate, and these are sent to a pathologist for determining the aggressiveness (grade) of the cancer cells. Several other scans, such as bone scans, MRI or CT scans may be used to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the prostate.


For low-risk patients, doctors can offer patients active surveillance. Treating too early may result in complications of treatment such as erectile dysfunction, incontinence, issues with passing urine,  blood in the urine, etc. That’s why for patients in this category, doctors may try to delay treatment as much as possible. During active surveillance, the patient sees his doctors every 3 months for follow-up rectal examinations and blood tests. Every 1 year to 18 months, a urologist may perform another biopsy to monitor the cancer’s progress. If signs show that the cancer is progressing, the patient may opt for treatment.

Watchful waiting is another option, for patients with a less aggressive cancer or for those who are advanced in age.

Radiotherapy & Surgery

For intermediate and high-risk patients, definitive treatment options such as radiotherapy or surgery are available. Radiotherapy can be divided into external beam radiation and brachytherapy. With external beam radiation, radiation comes from outside the body and is directed to the prostate cancer. With brachytherapy (there’s a certain criteria for patients who are suited for it), radioactive seeds are placed into the prostate, and these seeds deliver low doses of radiation over time to kill cancer cells. The surgical option is called a radical prostatectomy. It can be done as open surgery or via robotic prostatic surgery.

Hormonal Therapy

For patients who have locally invasive and metastatic disease, they can consider hormonal therapy. Prostate cancer is fuelled by testosterone, and hormonal therapy is used to cut down testosterone levels in the body—in doing so, cancer cells may die off. Sometimes, hormonal therapy may be given to those with locally invasive disease, to shrink the tumour first, before going for radical surgery. If the newer hormonal therapies don’t work for patients with metastatic disease, they can choose to go for chemotherapy.

In summary, patients should work with their doctors to choose a treatment plan most suited to their condition. HT

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